Xeriscaping (from the Greek xeros, meaning dry) is an approach to gardening that specifically focuses on conserving water.
Xeriscaping is growing in popularity in the Southwest, where water is scarce and native plants have evolved to tolerate long dry periods. These drought-resistant species include cacti, as well as other plants with adaptations like waxy coatings on their leaves to reduce evaporation, spines to deter thirsty animals, and wide-reaching root systems that can absorb lots of water in a rare rainstorm.
Xeriscaping is about more than just choosing plants that need little water, though. It can also include arranging those plants in and around swales that funnel rainfall towards roots, making maximum use of the water that’s available. Water can also be channeled into rain barrels or cisterns – people in the driest regions of the country, receiving just 2 inches of rain per year, can store over 1,000 gallons of free water by collecting what falls on their roof.
While Wisconsin does have a native cactus, xeriscaping doesn’t necessarily mean limiting yourself to the plants with the lowest water requirements. Instead, it means planting species that can thrive with just the amount of water that comes to them naturally as rain – in other words, planting natives! We create the need for watering when we fill our yards with non-native species adapted to rainier regions.