How do I know what plants are native?

So you’ve decided to garden with native plants. Great! But… which plants, exactly, should you put in your yard? What is native?

The concept of nativeness encompasses two aspects: space, and time. First, where was the plant in question found before humans started moving it to new places? Many resources will answer this question by noting whether a certain plant species was historically found in a particular state. But this is a somewhat arbitrary criteria. Plants don’t know or care about the political constructs we call states. And large states may contain many diverse ecosystems. A species might naturally occur in the forests of northern California, but that doesn’t make it a suitable choice for a yard in the arid southern part of the state.

This is why some resources list native plants by county. But even this doesn’t really have anything to do with the way plants naturally distribute themselves. A plant that has historically lived just over the county line might be a better fit for a site than a plant found in a distant corner of the same county.

For this reason, some native gardeners skip native-by-county and native-by-state lists entirely, and instead look at distance. Any reputable dealer of native plants will be able to tell you where they got the original seed from. (And it should be seed. Reputable dealers do not sell plants taken from the wild; they propagate seeds in their nurseries and sell those plants.) If that naturally-occurring source of seed is within, say, 50 miles of the intended planting site, then the species is native. If the seed is being collected from further away, it is not native, and won’t be considered for that particular garden.

The other aspect of nativeness is time. When we say that a species was found somewhere historically, what do we mean? Kentucky bluegrass, which originally evolved in Europe, could be found across the eastern United States 100 years ago. Does that make it native? What about plants that lived in the northern states prior to the last ice age, got wiped out by the glaciers, and haven’t come back on their own yet? Are they native?

Most people say that if a species was found in a place just before the time that Europeans got there, then it is historically native. But as climate change continues to alter ecosystems, we may want to update our definition of historically native to mean “species that were found in that place when the local climate was similar to what it will be again in the near future”.

Many native gardeners are not purists – that is, they will plant a non-native species in their yards because the species has especially beautiful flowers, or produces delicious fruit, or simply is a personal favorite of the gardener. There is nothing wrong with this. But if we are serious about native gardening, we should at least be aware when a species we are planting is one of these special exceptions. To do so, we first must decide how we are defining what is or is not native in our own yards.

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How do I know what plants are native?

What is Kentucky bluegrass?

Everybody knows Kentucky bluegrass. It’s that good American plant that people across the country use in their lawns.

But wait – is Kentucky bluegrass really American?

It turns out it isn’t.

Kentucky bluegrass is scientifically known as Poa pratensis, which means “meadow grass”. That was the plant’s common name centuries ago in its native range – in Europe.

Meadow grass was brought to North America in the 1600s, probably by accident. It was a happy accident from the settlers’ point of view, since meadow grass made great forage for cattle. North America’s native grasses, the pioneers quickly discovered, couldn’t survive being eaten by cows day after day.

In addition to being good at surviving constant grazing, meadow grass – which soon was being referred to as “Old World meadow grass” – was also good at spreading. The plant rapidly escaped from pastures in the East Coast colonies, and started heading west. When explorers finally made it over the Appalachians to the region now known as Kentucky, they found the meadow grass had beaten them there. From its ability to travel swiftly and its deep green color, the plant acquired its modern name, “Kentucky bluegrass”.

Why do we use this invasive grass species in our lawns? After all, North America boasts over 1,000 of its own native grass species. The answer is that, for the same reason that North American grasses don’t put up with grazing, they also don’t survive regular mowing.

Kentucky bluegrass, and other European species, evolved alongside grazing animals that tended to stay put. These species needed to figure out strategies to recover from daily munching.

North American species, in contrast, evolved alongside buffalo – and as we all know, buffalo roam. Therefore, North American grass species evolved to survive being occasionally descended upon by a herd of large ungulates, and then having plenty of time to grow back before the animals returned for another meal. In the context of a yard, these species can tolerate being mowed once in a rare while, but they quickly die if mowed every week.

For a period of our country’s history, many people thought that being a good American meant having a yard filled edge to edge with an invasive grass species. Now, many people think that being a good American means celebrating our own native plants – and one way we can do that is to invite them into our yards.

What is Kentucky bluegrass?

Why are lawns seen as safe?

If lawns are so dangerous, why do so many people believe they are safe? One reason is that advertisers have spent decades telling us that lawns are safe.

In the post-war period, lawns actually were marketed to women. Advertisements persistently positioned lawns as a kind of outdoor extension of the living room. (This is why lawns are so often compared to carpets.) Lawns were depicted as safe, clean places for children to play, and women were told that not having a nicely-mowed lawn was akin to letting garbage pile up inside their homes or failing to cook dinner for their families. So, wives nagged their husbands to mow their lawns, and lawns continued to serve as a visual symbol, without regard to what they actually did to people and the environment.

As described before, people tend to perceive familiar things as safe. At one time, lawns were not common, and most people didn’t know why they would want one – lawns took a lot of work to maintain, and didn’t seem to provide anything in exchange. But as lawns became more common – driven by social pressure, which in turn was driven by images and meanings created by advertising – lawns and their accompanying equipment became normal parts of the suburban scene. People forgot that these things were dangerous, and stopped following safety precautions. More recent generations, who grew up with lawns, may have never been aware of the hazards just outside their home.

But industries haven’t forgotten. Pesticide manufacturers know that their products are dangerous. Lawnmower manufacturers know that their products are dangerous. These industries quietly lobby against bans and regulations on their products, while investing heavily in advertising to tell us that it is insects and tall grass that are the real dangers. In fact, there is very little evidence to support those claims.

Our brains have evolved shortcuts for assessing risk – shortcuts that don’t always work in the modern world, and that can be manipulated by what special interest groups tell us. By paying attention to where information is coming from, and by looking at the real facts regarding risk, we can make intelligent decisions about how to keep ourselves and our families safe.

Why are lawns seen as safe?

What’s new in natural yards? January 2018

A candidate in this year’s Wisconsin gubernatorial race has named lawns as an issue he would address if elected. In a post on his campaign website, Jeff Rumbaugh says that if he becomes the governor, he will not ban lawns, but will work with municipalities to make alternative forms of gardening more accessible to property owners.

As a reason for this position, Rumbaugh focuses on the wasteful water consumption associated with lawns. He also mentions the connection between lawns and climate change, and the amount of work involved in maintaining a lawn. He proposes wildflower plantings, vegetable gardens, and gravel as more environmentally-responsible kinds of yards.

Rumbaugh’s campaign promise follows California’s statewide restrictions on lawns – effective as of December 2015 – and Madison’s easing of its regulations on natural yards. Meanwhile, a governmental task force in Delaware has recommended phasing out the use of non-native plants, which currently make up more than 70% of the plants sold at garden centers around the state.

Evidence is gathering that the era of the lawn as a dominant element in American landscaping is at an end. Natural yards are likely to become much more common over the next several years. There is still time for savvy homeowners to be part of this mainstream movement, rather than being the last on their block to adopt new gardening practices.

 

That Blog does not endorse political candidates. This post is simply a commentary on the continuing emergence of lawns as a political issue.

What’s new in natural yards? January 2018

What is today?

Today is Earth Day, a day to celebrate the planet that is our home, and renew our commitment to caring for it.

In the late 1960s, people realized they were not doing a good job caring for the Earth. Fossil fuel companies were causing huge oil spills, leaded gasoline was putting toxins into our environment, and rivers were so polluted they were catching fire.

Gaylord Nelson, a senator from Wisconsin, proposed establishing a holiday to educate Americans about environmental issues and encourage them to take small steps in their communities to create a cleaner, healthier, safer world.

This holiday, called Earth Day, was first celebrated in 1970, under Republican President Richard Nixon. Millions of Americans attended conferences about natural resource conservation, picked up litter in their neighborhoods, and otherwise did their part to repair damage to the environment.

Today is a great day to ride your bike instead of driving, look around your home for simple ways to reduce waste, or welcome a few native plants to your yard. If we all take these small steps, together we can create a better world for ourselves and our children.

What is today?

How old is That Blog?

That Blog is one year old today! This seems like a good time to recap some key points.

In the 1600s, American settlers imported a plant known as old world meadowgrass, in order to use it as food for cows and sheep. Over time, the plant acquired the name of Kentucky bluegrass, and began to be used in a novel landscaping feature called a lawn.

Lawns, and bluegrass, spread all over the United States. However, the grass – adapted to the cool, wet climate of northwestern Europe – did not fare well in the hot South or the dry conditions of the West. This was unacceptable to lawn owners, who responded by showering the grass with fertilizers, pesticides, and supplemental water.

These treatments successfully encouraged the grass to grow. But the owners did not want the grass to grow, so they mowed it. This was detrimental to the grass’s health, so the owners gave it more fertilizers, pesticides, and water. And so the cycle went.

Some people, feeling that this was a waste of time, decided to give up their lawns and instead invite nature into their yards. As scientific evidence of the harms caused by lawns accumulates, cities and states have passed laws encouraging, or even requiring, alternatives to lawns.

Today, many people still have lawns, but a growing number do not. The purpose of That Blog is to provide information about lawns and their alternatives, in order to help people decide what kind of yard is right for them.

How old is That Blog?

Where did the idea of natural yards come from?

Largely, the idea started in Wisconsin. It is important to remember, however, that natural yards are not a new idea. Lawns represent only a brief period in the history of land care practices.

The idea of natural yards is supported by Aldo Leopold’s famous essay The Land Ethic. In this essay, Leopold says that land – including soil, water, plants, and animals – is part of our community and should be treated with respect. People are responsible for protecting the health of land, but are members of the community alongside it, not its masters. Leopold developed the ideas in this essay while living near Baraboo, Wisconsin.

Lorrie Otto noticed that a lot of birds were dying in her neighborhood outside Milwaukee in the 1960’s. The main cause was DDT, and she worked to stop the spraying of this toxic pesticide. At the same time, she made her yard more welcoming to birds by restoring it to a prairie-like landscape. Her efforts inspired the formation of the Wild Ones, a national non-profit organization promoting natural yards.

Natural yards have become more common in Wisconsin over the last several decades. They will likely continue to increase in popularity here and across the United States.

Where did the idea of natural yards come from?