What is solastalgia?

We’re all familiar with nostalgia: the sadness we feel when thinking about places we love but don’t visit anymore. Solastalgia is nostalgia’s dark cousin: the sadness we feel when looking at places we once loved, but which have been irreparably transformed from how they used to be.

Maybe you can think of a specific moment in your life when solastalgia suddenly set in. Maybe when you were a child, the forest or field you played in was bulldozed to make room for more houses. Maybe you went to a favorite creek one day, only to find it had just been paved over. Many people who consider themselves environmentalists describe just such an experience as a defining moment in their lives, the time when they first understood that natural places matter and must be actively preserved.

Maybe solastalgia has set in for you more slowly. Maybe as you drive around your town, you say “That used to be farmland, and that used to be farmland, and that used to be farmland.” But the housing developments and strip malls sprung up one at a time over decades, and there was no specific day when you realized that the character of your community had changed.

Or maybe your family has lived in the same home for generations, and by talking to your parents and grandparents, you can trace a slow history of the surrounding hills being gradually deforested and then blasted apart for mining operations. The view from your house is no longer what it was when your ancestors settled in this spot, and you’ve lost something that you valued about your corner of the world.

Nostalgia makes us sad because there is no going back, even if we can physically return to the place we love. The creek where we played as children may still be there, but we just can’t experience it the same way as adults. We can walk the halls of our old high school, but we can’t recreate the good times we had with our friends.

Solastalgia makes us sad because what we loved is gone, irretrievably. We can’t go back to the neighborhood woodlot to stand in the cool shade and remember the adventures we had there when we were young, because the woodlot is now a treeless private yard. We can’t take our children cycling on country roads and show them our favorite vistas from when we were their age, because those roads are now busy city streets, unwelcoming to cyclists, and the views of farm fields have been replaced by gas stations and convenience stores.

The world, including natural environments, is always changing. But in recent times, change is occurring fast enough that we can see it happening over a single lifespan. We feel sad about how things are because we personally remember how they used to be.

When change is positive, we may reminisce about what things were like before, while also appreciating how they are now. But when change is overwhelmingly negative – when cookiecutter suburbs march across endless acres of what used to be healthy nature – we’re left with a deep sadness about what we’ve lost, while having little offsetting happiness about what we’ve gained.

Like biophilia, solastalgia often gets brushed off as a kind of illness, even though it’s perfectly normal. Nowadays, solastalgia is increasingly recognized as a real and legitimate form of grief. While biophilia is characteristically accompanied by action to repair the distressing circumstance, the defining feature of solastalgia is that the damage cannot be undone on any timescale short enough to help the sufferer feel better. If you are experiencing severe solastalgia, a counselor may be able to help.

What is solastalgia?

What is biophilia?

Very early on, That Blog wrote about how people are inherently drawn towards other living things, including plants and animals. The English language (via Greek) has helpfully provided us with a word for this: the term biophilia, which literally means love of life.

Not to be confused with joie de vivre – happiness about everything that’s good in our own lives – biophilia describes the care we feel towards all the other living beings we share our planet with. In particular, it refers to a kind of empathy for the non-human.

Biophilia is why we enjoy watching animals. It’s why we like walking among plants. Biophilia makes us wants to nurture flowers in our yards, adopt a cat, and pass laws to protect endangered species.

Importantly, biophilia is a normal part of the human condition. Most people experience it. Though some people try to cast wildlife lovers and treehuggers as strange, or even as unhealthily concerned about “useless” plants and animals, we should not be intimidated by this. Instead, we should ask those people why they don’t have normal feelings of respect and care towards other inhabitants of our world.

Normal, healthy people also experience feelings of intense distress, even grief, when we witness other life being harmed or destroyed – when we hear about how animals on factory farms are treated, when we see pictures of trophy hunters showing off their kills, when forests are destroyed by wildfires, and when healthy urban trees are “removed” – a frighteningly euphemistic term – to make more space for buildings and cars. Then, normal, healthy people experience a strong urge to do something to help offset this destruction of life. They may feel a desire to donate to a wildlife charity, or to sign a petition telling major restaurants to get animal abuse out of their supply chains. But most particularly, people feel compelled to do something hands-on: to plant trees in local parks, to volunteer at a wildlife rehabilitation center, or to tear out their barren lawns and fill the space with a thriving plant community. All of these feelings and actions are collectively known as urgent biophilia.

If you or someone you know is suffering from urgent biophilia, don’t dismiss it as being odd, or as being overly sentimental. Act on it. As our world moves deeper into a crisis of diminishing wildlife populations, disappearing forests, polluted oceans, and a dangerously unstable climate, people acting on their natural instinct to repair our only home may be our best hope of minimizing the damage.

What is biophilia?

How can we help plants?

In conventional gardening, plants are treated like yard furniture: inanimate objects that we can arrange and modify to suit our own preferences, and which will quickly fall into a degenerate state if we don’t constantly maintain them. This is, of course, biologically inaccurate. With a few exceptions, even highly cultivated plants are essentially wild creatures that, given appropriate growing conditions, can take care of all their own needs. Plants don’t require our help.

How do we know that this is so? Quite simply, because plants thrived on Earth for million of years before humans appeared on the scene. In contrast, humans literally would not survive for one day without plants.

Some people, in recognition of this fact, truly want to repay plants by helping them out. This is wonderful. However, many of the things that people do – with the best of intentions – to help plants are in fact harmful to plants. Pruning plants robs them of their food-producing ability and leaves them vulnerable to disease. Situating plants in a sea of mulch deprives them of the companions they need to be healthy. And spraying them with pesticides kills the insects the plants rely on for their reproductive processes.

There are some things we can do to help plants, though. Here are three simple actions with real benefits for plants.

Breathe on them. We know that animals take in oxygen and breathe out carbon, while plants absorb carbon and give off oxygen. We usually describe this harmonious dynamic by saying that plants clean the air for us. It is fascinating to realize that from a plant’s perspective, we clean the air for them! By breathing on plants, we can provide them with a little boost of the carbon they need to build their bodies. (It is thought that this is why some people swear plants grow better if you talk to them. It’s not the words we’re saying that benefit the plants; it’s the air we’re blowing on them.)

Relieve yourself on them. As described in a recent post, human bodily waste is full of nitrogen, a nutrient plants need. When we excrete on plants, we deposit nitrogen in a form plants can use. In contrast, when we excrete in modern toilets, we deposit nitrogen into the water supply, where it contributes to harmful effects. (Unless you are way out in the woods, though, don’t literally excrete on plants. Find a happy medium in the humanure process.)

Don’t walk near them. Some plants like to be walked near: for example, those that stick their seeds to our pants and let us disperse their offspring. For the most part, though, walking near plants only contributes to soil compaction and damages the plants’ roots. Resist the urge to hug trees. Instead, tell them loudly, from a respectful distance, how much you appreciate their service. They’ll enjoy the extra carbon more than they would the warm embrace.

How can we help plants?

Do people want lawns?

If you are thinking that you would like to throw out your lawnmower and fill your yard with native plants, you are not alone. The facts – about how lawns waste water, pollute the atmosphere, poison us, trample on wildlife habitat, and take our time and money without giving anything back – are making their way into the public consciousness. Surely there are some people who genuinely like lawns. But, even as lawns continue to be a default landscaping choice in many new developments, as outdated local regulations continue to favor and protect lawns, and as that one turf lover in every neighborhood tries to shame and bully others into mowing their grass, more and more Americans are taking the stance that lawns just don’t make sense. Though not all of those people have yet had the courage to take this stance publicly by changing how they garden, here are three statistics showing that views on natural yards are changing dramatically.

People hate mowing the lawn. In the fall of 2011, CBS News surveyed Americans about their least favorite chores. 20% of the people surveyed said that mowing the lawn was the chore they hated most, making lawnmowing the least popular chore in America. According to this poll, mowing was less liked than other types of tedious yardwork, including raking leaves and shoveling snow.

It’s worth noting that this survey presumably included people who don’t have lawns – meaning that among those Americans who do have lawns, even more than 20% hated mowing above all their other domestic tasks.

People really hate leafblowers. Somewhere prior to 2002, a Learning Channel documentary reported that people named leafblowers as the third-worst invention ever. In a survey about terrible technology, only parking meters and car alarms earned more votes for being awful inventions.

Leafblowers are not needed in natural yards, for the simple reason that natural yards have no “yard waste” that needs to be blown away. Fallen leaves, grass clippings, and other discarded plant parts are recognized as valuable resources that can be either left in place or quietly gathered into a compost pile, to fulfill their destiny and return to the soil.

People want more native plants. In 2008, a survey by Consumer Reports found that a respectable 26% of American homeowners wanted to replace at least some of their lawn with “flowers, rocks, or native landscaping.” More recently, the number of homeowners who want to plant natives in their yards has climbed to a whopping 84%, according to a survey  by the American Society of Landscape Architects. In this survey, homeowners also named planting drought-resistant species and establishing low-maintenance landscapes as changes they would like to make in their yards.

Natural yards are no longer a fringe gardening choice. They are not being adopted by people who “just like plants”; they are being mindfully established by homeowners who recognize the overwhelming evidence that yards that are in harmony with nature are better for the environment, our health, our community, and our pocketbooks.

Put native plants in your yard. Tell people why gardening this way is important to you. You are in good company.

Do people want lawns?

How can one yard make a difference?

In some respects, sustainable gardening is what’s known as a collective action problem: a challenge in which many people need to work together to enact a solution, and in which the first few people to act incur high costs while receiving few, if any, benefits. These problems are difficult to solve because everyone needs to act, but no one wants to act first.

In the case of sustainable gardening, the first person on the block to plant native wildflowers, or not rake their leaves in the fall, or even just set their lawnmower blade to four inches high (it really is better for the grass) could end up getting criticized – or worse – by their neighbors, while the positive impact they’re having on the environment seems like hardly a drop in the bucket compared to the serious problems our planet is facing. Under such circumstances, who would want to be a trendsetter? Even if our neighbors nod politely at our efforts, isn’t one yard just too small to make a difference?

That Blogger had an opportunity to put these questions to Doug Tallamy, a professor of entomology at the University of Delaware and a well-known advocate of natural yards, just a few months before That Blog was launched. Here are his answers.

Can one yard make any difference to nature?

Less than one yard can make a difference, Tallamy said. Even a few flowers on a balcony or in a window box can provide a valuable foraging stop for butterflies and other pollinators. And a space the size of a bedroom can have real, measurable benefits for these small creatures. A 15-by-15-foot garden in the completely enclosed courtyard of the Department of Agriculture building in Dover, Delaware, became a nursery for no fewer than 150 monarch caterpillars, when employees in the building simply chose to use that space for milkweed rather than for grass.

What if we just don’t put nature in our yards?

“We no longer have the option of opting out,” Tallamy said bluntly. “Most people do not have viable habitat [in their yards], and we’re seeing a steady drain of species from our ecosystems.”

As those species vanish, the ecosystem services they provide disappear too. That’s a serious problem for us humans, Tallamy said. If we want to safeguard our own survival, we need to do something now. Once the species we exclude from our yards are extinct, we can’t bring them back.

Do enough people have nature in their yards?

No, Tallamy said. But we’re getting closer to the critical threshold of solving this collective action problem.

Sustainable gardening is “certainly not mainstream yet,” Tallamy said (speaking in early 2015), “but it’s headed in that direction. I’m optimistic. We have turned the corner much faster than I thought we would have.”

But seriously. One yard?

Tallamy turned the question on its head, pointing out that regardless of property lines, we don’t need to think in terms of just one yard. Our next-door neighbor has a yard. Their neighbor on the other side has a yard. There are yards all the way down the block and into the next town and across the country. We can invite all of those neighbors to join us in our efforts to garden with nature. We can encourage landlords of apartment buildings to landscape their grounds with native plants instead of with lawn. We can pressure our local officials to plant more street trees and spray fewer pesticides.

When we have the courage to be a trendsetter, we are not small. And we can make a difference.

How can one yard make a difference?

Why is That Blog necessary?

That Blog has now been active for three years, and currently has nearly 200 posts. Those posts document numerous benefits of natural yards, and also report on clear signals that the era of the lawn is rapidly coming to a close.

During that same three-year period, however, the acreage of lawn in the United States has continued to increase, alongside ongoing suburban sprawl, as lawn remains a default landscaping choice in many parts of the country. And, studies still find that many people do not understand or value the many crucial services that urban nature provides for us.

A fascinating report from 2015 – just after That Blog was launched – investigates why experts on the importance of urban nature struggle to communicate what they know to laypeople. The fundamental finding of this report is that while experts recognize that nearby nature is absolutely critical to human health and wellbeing, the average person views nature as a sort of bonus amenity that is nice to have around if there is any space left after inserting houses, schools, workplaces, roads, parking lots, and all the other manmade infrastructure a community needs.

The report finds that many people also struggle with the basic idea of nature in cities. Urban dwellers often don’t view their local parks as nature, despite the presence of trees and other plants. To many Americans, “nature” means someplace vast and far away, the kind of place we visit occasionally on vacation.

In other words, the average person thinks that nature only counts if it’s big, and that we can “stock up” nature to sustain our wellbeing throughout the year. In contrast, experts understand that people benefit from nature as small as a pocket park or a residential yard, and that we need daily exposure to nature to really be at our best.

After comparing the views of laypeople to the knowledge of experts, and examining the communications gap between the two groups, the report concludes that people would value and support urban nature more if they understood that:

  • nature benefits us even when it is small.
  • we benefit from experiencing nature, rather than simply using it as a place to take a walk and get exercise.
  • nature benefits us in specific ways, via mechanisms science can explain.
  • nature is an essential component of urban design; we cannot live without it.
  • we can choose to have more nature in our cities!

For three years, That Blog has examined how even a small planting provides a wide variety of benefits, explored how we feel when we look at naturally-growing plants, explained how plants support our physical and mental health, expressed that natural yards are a great choice for our neighborhoods, and encouraged everyone to garden sustainably with nature!

Until public understanding and acceptance of urban nature is in line with what experts have long known, That Blog is still necessary. In the coming months, That Blog will cover the impacts of global warming, how to be a good neighbor to plants, and what happens to people’s wellbeing when nearby nature is destroyed. But first, That Blog will tackle head-on the key question: How can one yard make a difference?

Why is That Blog necessary?

What is an invasive species?

In the last post, That Blog asked what a native plant is. Asking what an invasive plant is might seem redundant – if it’s not native, it must be invasive, right?

Actually, no. If it’s not native, it must be non-native. But not all non-native plants are invasive. An invasive plant is one that meets a special definition:

An invasive plant is one which tends to spread, and which causes harm to the local ecosystem.

A non-native plant that stays put in a garden, or that escapes into the wild but causes no discernible disruption to the existing plant community, is not considered to be invasive.

Where do invasive species come from? Some – like Kentucky bluegrass – arrive by accident, as stowaways in other shipments. But half or more of the invasive species spreading across the United States today were deliberately introduced by the nursery trade. People planted these ornamental exotics in their yards, and the plants then cheerfully multiplied beyond the property lines.

In recent years, some states have tried to deal with this problem by banning the sale of invasive species. Some of these measures have passed; others have not. Even when they do pass, though, they tend to ban plants which have already been sold in abundance, and which have already spread into natural areas. Once a species has invaded an area, it is usually very difficult to eradicate. Banning the continued sale of such species is unlikely to make a dent in the problem.

An approach that might be more effective is to make every property owner responsible for eliminating invasives from their own land: if we each take care of our own piece of the Earth, together we might be able to accomplish something. Municipalities have used this approach for a long time, in the form of banning so-called “noxious weeds”. But these weed bans are often not enforced, and, more importantly, they tend to take aim at plants that are unpopular, rather than focusing on plants that are truly harmful. As just one example, these rules often forbid milkweed, the family of native flowers that are crucial to the survival of the monarch butterfly.

Before we pause to reflect on That Blog’s third anniversary, let’s take a look at one more definition worth knowing: a naturalized plant is not one that has settled harmoniously into its new home. Rather, it is a non-native species that is capable of surviving and reproducing without human help; in other words, a species poised to become invasive.

What is an invasive species?